Those WCAG Forgot: Designing for the Cognitively Disabled
"WCAG 2.0 does make the web accessible to a wider range of people. It also provides guidance on how to make the web more accessible for people with cognitive disabilities; but it is just that, merely Priority AAA guidance. But the required success criteria are primarily designated for individuals with sight, hearing, and motor impairments, while those for cognitive impairment typically remain priority AAA criteria that may or may not be implemented."
Understanding the computer skills of adult expert users with down syndrome: an exploratory study
"Recent survey research suggests that individuals with Down syndrome use computers for a variety of educational, communication, and entertainment activities. However, there has been no analysis of the actual computer knowledge and skills of employment-aged computer users with Down syndrome. We conducted an ethnographic observation that aims at examining the workplace-related computer skills of expert users with Down syndrome. The results show that expert users with Down syndrome have the ability to use computers for basic workplace tasks such as word processing, data entry, and communication."
Technology and everyday functioning in people with intellectual disabilities: a Rasch analysis of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ)
"The Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) was originally designed to investigate the extent to which older adults with cognitive limitations can use the everyday technology that is of relevance to them. The purpose of this study was to explore and evaluate evidence of the validity of ETUQ among adult persons with ID. The original 93-item ETUQ was used to interview 120 adult participants with ID, recruited from a region in northern Sweden. A Rasch model was used to analyse the psychometric properties of the rating scale, scale validity, person response validity and person separation. Results The ETUQ rating scale displayed sound psychometric properties when used with this sample. The goodness-of-fit statistics showed that 15 (16%) of the 93 items demonstrated higher values than expected. A step-by-step removal process of items not demonstrating fit to the model resulted in an ETUQ version with 46 items (49%) that met all the criteria for scale validity. Fifteen participants (12%), primarily with mild ID, still demonstrated a higher number of unexpected responses included in ETUQ. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the ETUQ generates a valid measure of perceived difficulty in using everyday technology including adult persons with ID."
Testing the Accessibility of Websites
"The current development of the internet and its growing use makes it necessary to satisfy the needs of all users including those with disabilities having accessibility problems. We developed a new validator software (XValid) based on the WCAG 2.0. We tested 18 countries' sites in 15 categories approximately 500 sites, with XValid. We made a statistical analysis based on our test. We determined the most frequently occurring errors based on these statistics. We took into account these typical errors, when we determined our minimal guidelines in ten points. People with disabilities could reach the internet barrier free if the web designer would test his/her design using our recommendations."
A Smart Tutoring Aid for the Autistic - Educational Aid for Learners on the Autism Spectrum
"Personalization of the e-Learning environments for the 'Cognitively Disabled' is still to be evolved, as personalization cannot be left to the discretion of the disabled user. It has to be done by the supporting people like the teacher, therapist or the parent. This manual intervention can be minimized, using Self-Learning environments, which can interact with the child, understand him and dynamically personalize the lesson plans, based on his interests, mood and current attention span. Proposing a Smart e-Learning Tutoring model for the Autistic with machine learning capabilities that help in generating dynamic e-Learning sessions, thus maximizing each learner's opportunity to grasp and learn independently."
Multidisciplinary collaboration and ICT services for people with complex communication needs
"The aim of this paper is to present opportunities of multidisciplinary cooperation of university scientist in the field of electronic engineering and computer science, education and rehabilitation, speech pathology, psychology and graphic technology, focused on researching and solving complex problems of alternative communication based on assistive technology. Target groups are persons with complex communication needs such as Down syndrome, autism, Alzheimer's disease, sever intellectual difficulties, complex motor disorders."
Ten years of access for all from WSE 2001 to WSE 2011
"At WSE 2001 the theme was Access for All. A decade later, this theme is revisited for WSE 2011. We take this opportunity to discuss the past, present, and future of Web accessibility. Five representative categories of Web accessibility are considered: accommodating disabilities, Web literacy, user interfaces, lingual barriers, and open data."
Mobile web on the desktop: simpler web browsing
This paper explores the potential benefits of using mobile webpages to present simpler web content to people with cognitive disabilities. An empirical analysis revealed that the majority of popular mobile sites are smaller than their desktop equivalents with an average of half the viewable content, making them a viable method for simplifying web presentation.
From clouds to rain: Consolidating and simplifying online communication services with easy one communicator.
"The growth of cloud computing has encouraged an ecosystem where diverse, task-specific web and mobile applications have flourished. However, this fragmentation of tasks across disparate applications has introduced a level of complexity and separation that can be time-consuming and difficult to navigate for individuals who are older, have cognitive disabilities, or are unfamiliar with web and mobile interfaces. Easy One Communicator is a web application that addresses the complexity of online communication tools by consolidating and simplifying the management of online communication."
Public transportation assistant for the cognitively impaired
"This project developed and evaluated the utility of a mobility assistant cognitive prosthetic that leverages the computing power and GPS location determination capabilities of smart phones to provide location-sensitive mobility assistance. New relatively inexpensive smart phones offer powerful computing and location sensing capabilities. A prototype cognitive prosthetic was developed to assist users in their use of transportation systems. User Interface design included remote caregiver programming features, and automated SMS status generation. Location specific memory cues are triggered by comparing current GPS coordinate location with expected route coordinates obtained from stored route databases based on the GTFS feeds from transit systems. Additional development focused on developing algorithms to identify potential user errors, such as wrong-bus. These reminders and instructions will allow cognitively disabled persons to utilize public transportation systems with greater confidence leading to greater mobility and independence."
Development of uniform standards for cognitive technologies
"This project focuses on developing uniform design standards and guidelines for people with cognitive impairment. The main goal of this research is to build on technologies under development in international projects that address accessibility, including Fluid, AEGIS, and the Raising the Floor initiative. This will enable a user with a cognitive disability to receive a presentation of a website tailored to their needs, with key information highlighted, and less important information moved to a backup screen."
Cognitive Web Accessibility: Research 2011
Published in 2011, these resources are original studies, literature reviews and related articles that cite references.
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